Continuous Positive Airway Pressure
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Definition
Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) is pressure that is delivered into your airway by a machine.

Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Machine

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Reasons for the Use of CPAP
CPAP is used to keep the airway open and allows air to more easily move in and out of your lungs. It is used most often to manage obstructive sleep apnea. Obstructive sleep apnea is a period of time during sleep when breathing is blocked. This can happen several times each night. CPAP is considered to be the most effective treatment for sleep apnea, which may help to:

  • Decrease daytime sleepiness
  • Decrease high blood pressure
  • Decrease heartburn symptoms
  • Improve quality of life
CPAP may also be used in preterm infants. Under-developed lungs can be a common problem in preterm infants. CPAP can help support the infant's lungs until they can develop fully. It may prevent or decrease the need for more invasive treatments or medications. This article is focused on CPAP for sleep apnea.

Possible Complications
Most patients who use CPAP report at least one side effect. The first night using a CPAP machine can be difficult. You may even sleep worse at first. It is important to prepare for this adjustment. Talk with your doctor about steps you can take to minimize any discomfort.

CPAP is considered very safe. Talk to your doctor about potential complications, such as:

  • A feeling of claustrophobia or suffocation from wearing the face mask
  • Rash or pressure sores in the area of the face mask
  • Nasal congestion and nosebleeds
  • Sore eyes, conjunctivitis
  • Sore or dry throat
  • Headaches
  • Abdominal bloating
  • Chest muscle discomfort
What to Expect
Prior to Getting a CPAP Machine
Your doctor may request that you:

  • Have a complete physical exam
  • Have a stay in a sleep lab to determine the correct amount of airway pressure for you
  • See a pulmonologist or an ear, nose, and throat specialist
  • Quit smoking
  • Lose weight
  • Start a regular exercise program
Description of Machine Use
Following your stay in a sleep lab, you will be prescribed a CPAP machine.

The CPAP machine includes a pump and a face mask. The pump sits off the bed and has a tube that goes to the face mask. The face mask will be tightly secured to your head so that air will not leak out. The pump will force air through your airway to help keep it open. You will need to wear the face mask to bed every night.

How Long Will It Take?
The machine will be used for as long as it is needed.

Will It Hurt?
Some have reported chest muscle discomfort. Talk with your doctor about the best way for you to relieve any discomfort.

Average Hospital Stay
CPAP machines will be used at home.

Post-procedure Care
Stopping use of the CPAP will most likely cause symptoms of sleep apnea to return. Follow the instructions for the care and cleaning of your machine and mask.

Call Your Doctor
After arriving home, contact your doctor if any of the following occurs:

  • Cough or difficulty breathing
  • Chest pain
  • Feelings of dizziness, lightheadedness, or headache
  • Ear pain that increases when using the CPAP machine
  • Difficulty adjusting to the machine, beyond what is expected
In case of an emergency, call for medical help right away.




RESOURCES:
American Academy of Otolaryngology

American Lung Association

American Sleep Apnea Association

CANADIAN RESOURCES:
The Canadian Sleep Society (CSS)

Canadian Society of Otolaryngology

The Lung Association

References:
What is CPAP? National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute website. Available at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/cpap/. Updated December 13, 2011. Accessed May 28, 2013.

Chowdhuri S. Continuous positive airway pressure for the treatment of sleep apnea. Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America. 2007; 40(4):807-827.

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php. Updated December 27, 2012. Accessed January 3, 2013.

Last Reviewed May 2013



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